रोगो को समूल नष्ट करने में सहायक – पंचकर्म थेरेपी

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आयुर्वेद संहिताओं में रोगोपचार की दो विधियॉ बताई गई हैः

  1. शोधन
  2. शमन

शोधन चिकित्सा :

इसमें शारीरिक व्याधियों के कारक दूषित दोषों को शरीर से बाहर निकाल फेंकने से अधिकांश व्याधियां स्वतः ठीक हो जाती है। उसके बाद किया गया उपचार अधिक प्रभावी होता है। पंचकर्म इसी शोधन विधि का तकनीकी नाम है। इसकी क्रम बद्धता निम्न प्रकार है-

पूर्वकर्म :

  • स्नेहन
  • स्वेदन

प्रधानकर्म :

  • वमन
  • विरेचन
  • आस्थापन बस्ति
  • अनुवासन-बस्ति
  • शि‍रो-विरेचन

आयुर्वेदीय चिकित्सा पद्धति में प्रायः अधिकांश रोगो में रोगानुसार किसी एक कर्म के द्धारा शोधन कराने के बाद ही औषध के आभ्यंतर प्रयोग का विधान है। इससे कोई भी रोग पूर्ण एवं समूल दूर किया जाता है। बिना पंचकर्म के औषध सेवन से रोगो का शमन हो सकता है किन्तु समूल नाश नही हो सकता। अतः रोगो को समूल नष्ट करने एवं शोधन के बाद रसायन सेवन से कायाकल्प करने में ‘पंचकर्म’ पद्धति आवश्‍यक है।
पंचकर्म के विभिन्न कर्मो का संक्षिप्त विवरण निम्न प्रकार है –

पूर्वकर्म :

स्नेहन
इस विधि में शरीर के विकृत दोषो को बढाकर बाहर निकालने के लिए द्घृतपान, तेलपान एवं अभ्यंग का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
स्वेदन
इस विधि की अनेक उपविधियॉ है जिनके द्धारा शरीर से पसीना निकाल कर अनेक रोगो का उपचार किया जाता है।
उक्त दोनों कर्म नियमानुसार प्रत्येक कर्म के पहले करना आवश्‍यक है।

प्रधानकर्म :

वमन
इस कर्म के द्वारा कफ जन्य जटिल रोगों का उपचार किया जाता है जैसे-कास-श्‍वास-अजीर्ण-ज्वर इत्यादि । इसमें औषधीय क्वाथ को पिलाकर उल्टी (वमन) कराई जाती है, जिससे विकृत कफ एवं पित्त बाहर आ जाने से रोग शांत होता है।
विरेचन
पैत्तिक रोगों के लिए उक्त कर्म लाभदायक है। साथ ही उदर रोगों में इससे लाभ प्राप्त होता है, जैसेः- अजीर्ण-अम्लपित्त, शि‍रःशूल, दाह, उदरशूल, विवधं गुल्म इत्यादि। इसके लिए भी विभिन्न चरणों मे भिन्न-भिन्न औषध देने का प्रावधान है।
आस्थापन बस्ति
इसका दूसरा नाम मेडिसिनल एनिमा देना भी है। आयुर्वेद के अनुसार इस प्रक्रियां में खुश्‍क द्रव्यों के क्वाथ की बस्ति गुदा मार्ग से देकर दोषो का शोधन किया जाता है। इससे पेट एवं बडी आंत के वायु संबधी सभी रोगों में लाभ मिलता है।
अनुवासन बस्ति
इस प्रक्रिया में स्निग्ध (चिकने) पदार्थो जैसे दूध, धी, तेल आदि के औषधीय मिश्रण का एनिमा लगाया जाता है। इससे भी पेट एवं बडी आंत के रोगों में काफी लाभ मिलता है, जैसेः- विबंध, अर्श-भगन्दर, गुल्प, उदरशूल, आध्मान (आफरा) इत्यादि ।
उपरोक्त दोनों प्रक्रियाओं को आयुर्वेद में अत्यधिक महत्वपूर्ण माना गया है। इन प्रक्रियाओं से समस्त प्रकार के वातरोगों एवं अन्य रोगों में स्थाई लाभ मिलता है।
शि‍रोविरेचन
इस विधि में नासा-मार्ग द्धारा औषध पूर्ण एवं विभिन्न तेलों का नस्य (SNUFF) दिया जाता है तथा सिर के चारों तरफ पट्ट बन्धन करके तैल धारा का प्रयोग किया जाता है। इन प्रयोगों से सिर के अन्दर की खुश्‍की दूर होती है। तथा पुरानाजमा बलगम छींक आदि के माध्यम से बाहर आ जाता है और रोगी को स्थाई लाभ मिल जाता है। उर्ध्वजत्रुगत (ई.एन.टी) रोगों, सभी तरह के शि‍रोरोगों एवं नेत्र रोगो हेतु उक्त प्रक्रिया काफी लाभदायक है। इससे पुराने एवं कठिन शि‍रःशूल, अर्धावभेदक, अनिद्रा, मानसिक तनाव (टेंशन) स्पोन्डलाइटिस इत्यादि रोगों मे काफी फायदा होता है।
वर्तमान में पंचकर्म चिकित्सा पद्धति काफी लोकप्रिय हो रही है। लेकिन शास्त्र सम्मत तरीके से न करने पर इसके विपरीत प्रभाव भी होते है, जो बाद मे अधिक जटिलता उत्पन्न कर देते है।

स्रोत : आयुर्वेद विभाग (राजस्थान सरकार)

 

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